The Sahara provinces are situated between 20 and 28 degrees latitude to the north. With a length of 1000 km and a breadth of 500 km, the current area of the provinces (253000 square meters) as broad as it used to be throughout history.
Yet the current area of the Sahara provinces makes of it a major part of the Arab Maghreb to the north and of Western Africa to the south. Geographically, the Moroccan Sahara, or “the land of Bidane” as its population refer to it, is made up of many plains and hills, as compared with the Eastern Moroccan Sahara, which is marked by mountainous landform. The landform structure of the Sahara provinces is relatively simple.
The climate of the Sahara provinces is marked by the scarcity of precipitations, due to the absence of real landforms, and the Alizi winds blowing alongside the coast, in addition to the unstable air circle. Generally, the landforms of the Sahara provinces seem to be flat and made up of some old heights of less than 600 m, crossed by some dry rivers flowing to the west. Four kinds of Saharan landforms can be distinguished.
The climate of the Saharan provinces can yet be considered as the softest of the African deserts. It is dry, hot during the day and cold during night. It changes according to temperature degrees and to closeness to the Atlantic Ocean. Temperature rises with movement towards the east. Sunny days throughout the year are many and may easily reach 3000 hours per year.
Hamada: a large area of land in the form of wavelike plains that may be made up either of lime or of sandy dry clay crossed by dry and surface rivers.
Erg: is a large soft area of desert made up of dry and- at times flat - old basins with no forms of plant or animal life.
Dunes: It is an area covered by extensive sand hills that may stretch over many kilometers. Contrary to the Reg, dunes may include some plant or animal living creatures.
Mountains: Located between the north and the south, they are old and sedimented hills formed through land decomposition. Most important of the Saharan mountains are the Bani and Walourkziz mountains which are an extension to the Saharan Atlas up to the Atlantic Ocean.
Concerning the availability of water, the region is marked by a variety of rivers. Some of which have been dry for many years, while others are filled up with rain and storm waters. Coastal rivers are fed with winter waters which rarely reach the sea.
Now it becomes clear how the landform and climate data affect the plant and animal living creatures. Plants are scarce, and only few trees can be found (Acacia nilotica, tamarisk, some rubber trees, Argan trees, and some spiky trees). Animals known in the Sahara are: gazelles, female gazelles, foxes, hyenas, camels and some species of goats. There are also some birds such as bustards, hawks, eagles, and some species of the Aquila, in addition to some reptiles and scorpions.